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Online Journal of Bioinformatics

Established 1995

ISSN  1443-2250


Volume 23 (3):258-267, 2022.

Identification and sequence analysis of bovine toll like receptor gene.

Syed M Shah, Ravi Kumar and GS Brah.


Animal Genomics Lab, Department of Animal Biotechnology, GADVASU, Ludhiana, Punjab, India




Shah SM, Kumar R, Brah GS., Identification and sequence analysis of bovine toll like receptor gene, OnlJ Bioinform., 23 (3):258-267, 2022. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is the most promiscuous TLR implicated in signaling induced by Gram-positive cell walls, peptidoglycan and mycobacterial factors, GPI anchors (Trypanosoma cruzi), lipoarabinomann (Mycobacterium tuberculosis), porins (Nesseria meningitides) and zymosan yeast cell wall component and a number of endogenous ligands viz., necrotic cells and their protein byproducts and heat shock proteins (HSP60, HSP 70 and GP96). We characterized TLR2 gene in Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) by amplifying and cloning a 1152bp sequence submitted to Genbank with accession number GU441859. The sequence shared 98% identity with Capra hircus, 97% Bos taurus, Bos indicus and Bison bison, 96% Boselaphus tragocamelus, 94% Ovis aries, 82% Sus scrofa and Eqqus cabalus and 81% with Canis lupus familaris. The sequence had 95% similarity with Bison bison, 94% Bos indicus and Bos taurus, 93% Boselaphus tragocamelus, 90% Ovis aries, 89% Capra hircus, 73% Sus scrofa, 71% Equus caballus and Canis lupus familaris and 44% with Gallus gallus. Phylogenetic analysis that buffalo clustered with other bovids and Capra hircus, but diverged from Equus cabalus, Sus scrofa and Gallus gallus. Analysis of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions per site suggested that nucleotide sequences coding for the TLR2 gene were not under positive selection and null hypothesis of strict-neutrality was deduced.


Key words: Cloning, Characterization, Toll like receptor, Buffalo, Phylogeny.