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Online Journal of Bioinformatics


Volume 21(3): 246-261, 2020.

Pharmacokinetics of cyanidin and anti-Influenza phytonutrients in an

elderberry extract determined by LC-MS and DART TOF-MS


Bill Roschek Jr, Randall S Alberte.


HerbalScience Group LLC., Naples FL 34110, USA




Roschek B Jr, Alberte RS., Pharmacokinetics of Cyanidin and Anti-Influenza Phytonutrients in an Elder Berry Extract Determined by LC-MS and DART TOF-MS., Onl J Bioinform., 21(3): 246-261, 2020. Pharmacokinetic analyses were conducted on flavonoid phytonutrients in aStandardized Elder Berry Extract (SEBX) to determine bioavailability and uptake kinetics, and to compare LC-MS and DART TOF-MS for pharmacokinetic analyses. In the first study, serum and urine levels of Cyanidin from an SEBX lozenge weremonitored by LC-MS in 6 individuals. In the second study, DART TOF-MS was used to compare the serum pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of Cyanidin and other flavonoids in SEBX when delivered as a slow-dissolve lozenge and as a drink from a single individual. When the SEBX lozenge was consumed, serum concentrations of Cyanidin were between 3.1 (LC-MS) and 5.4 nmol L-1 (DART TOF-MS), equivalent to 2.7 and 4.7% bioavailability (BA), respectively. Averionol (methylated flavonoid) reached a Cmax of 23 nmol L-1 (10.5% BA), while Tristenonol (esterified flavonoid) and Istrocyanidin (A-type proanthocyanidin) reached Cmax values of 3.9 nmol L-1 (8.6% BA) and 7.5 nmol L-1 (19.7% BA), respectively. When the SEBX was consumed as a drink, the bioavailability of Cyanidin decreased 20-fold (0.2% BA), while Averionol and Istrocyanidin decreased 2-fold (4.6 and 10.8% BA, respectively) compared to the lozenge ingestion, indicating primary uptake in the oral cavity. The bioavailability of Tristenonol increased by ca. 2-fold (18.8% BA) when the SEBX drink was consumed compared to the lozenge indicating the small intestine as the primary uptake site.


Key Words: Elder berry, DART TOF-MS, Cyanidin, Influenza.